Tuesday, 12 March 2013
Caged migrant birds become restless at night during the migration season and jump more often in the direction where they intend to migrate, making little ink prints on the paper. Caged robins changed their heading accordingly when the magnetic field was artificially altered using strong magnets. Migratory birds magnetic sense is extraordinary as it relies on light as detected by the eyes - in particular the right eye -, which is interpreted in a magnetic way. Photons exciting a particular molecule (called 'cryptochrome') in the retinal cells form radical pairs sensitive to the magnetic field. The information reaches the brain through the optic nerve and the bird is able to form a map of intensity of the magnetic field overimposed to their visual field. The intensity of the magnetic field is region specific, helping the bird to navigate even in low light conditions. Recently, Katrin Stapput and collaborators found out that this magnetic sense depends of the bird having a clear image on their right eye as Robins that had their left eye covered with a frosted goggle - which prevents them from forming a clear image -could navigate, while if the right eye did not form a clear image they got disorientated (see their result below).
Robin wearing goggles (from Stapput et al 2010)
Orientation of European Robins during Spring Migration with the Local Geomagnetic Field as the Only Cue. (A) In the binocular control tests without goggles (Bi), the birds preferred their normal northerly migratory direction. (B) Birds tested binocularly in a radio frequency field (BiRF) were disoriented, indicating that the orientation was based on radical pair processes. (C) When the right eye was covered with a clear foil and the left eye covered with a frosted one (Rclear), the birds were oriented in their normal migratory direction. (D) When the left eye was covered with a clear foil and the right eye covered with a frosted one (Lclear), the birds were no longer oriented. The triangles at the periphery of the circles indicate mean headings calculated from three tests of the individual birds; the arrows originating from the center represent the grand mean vector drawn proportional to the radius of the circle = 1. The two inner circles are the 5% (dashed circle) and 1% (solid circle) significance borders of the Rayleigh test. (From Stapput et al 2010).Next time you see the lovely bright eyes of the Robin spare a thought for the amazing things they can do with them.
Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (2006). Magnetoreception BioEssays, 28 (2), 157-168 DOI: 10.1002/bies.20363
Stapput, K., Güntürkün, O., Hoffmann, K., Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (2010). Magnetoreception of Directional Information in Birds Requires Nondegraded Vision Current Biology, 20 (14), 1259-1262 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.05.070
Friday, 8 March 2013
Today, I noticed a crow struggling on a tree. It was trying to break a twig using all its might, flapping its wings and leaning back. Unlike other birds, which collect sticks found on the ground, Carrion Crows, Rooks and Jays use fresh sticks, that the break from trees as the material for the main framework of their nests. Then they will look for bark, hair and grass as lining lining on the ground. After a couple of unsuccessful attempts, the crow moved to another part of the tree, and this time it was successful first try, cleanly snapping the stick. It then rearranged the position of the stick to pick it up securely balanced from the middle, and flew away. The crow nesting season has already started.